Researchers Publications

2016
The Geopolitics of Cross-border Electricity Grids: The Israeli-Arab Case
Herman L, Fischhendler I, Anderman J. The Geopolitics of Cross-border Electricity Grids: The Israeli-Arab Case. Energy Policy. 2016;98 :533-543.Abstract

Countries often attempt to establish regional electricity grids. However, whereas research on natural resources frequently seeks to understand policy outcome through a geopolitical prism, when it comes to electricity studies the prism is always economic or technical. Hence, this study is a first attempt to identify the geopolitical dimension of cross-border electricity grids. The study argues that success in establishing electricity grids requires identifying how the geopolitical dimension interplays with the physical dimension. To examine the role of these geopolitical bottlenecks, the study examines negotiation protocols, spanning over 15 years, on establishing ten grid connections between Israel and its Arab neighbors. It finds that electricity geopolitics has been used both as a platform for deeper international cooperation and as a stick against neighboring states. When policies are driven by a peace dividend, proposals for grid connection appear to evolve and overcome the dependency and the security-economy bottlenecks. When relations deteriorate, proposals for grid connections appear to undergo reconsideration and to be held hostage by higher politics. If, when and how electricity grids materialize is a function of the nature of the electricity network as a twofold package and of the ability of the planning process to accommodate geopolitical uncertainty.

 

Homeland: Zionism as Housing Regime, 1860-2011
Allweil Y. Homeland: Zionism as Housing Regime, 1860-2011.; 2016.Abstract

On 29 March 2016 the New York based online journal, Realty Today reported Israel is facing a housing crisis with [the] home inventory lacking 100,000 apartments House prices, which have more than doubled in less than a decade, resulted in a mass protest back in 2011 .

As Yael Allweil reveals in her fascinating book, housing has played a pivotal role in the history of nationalism and nation building in Israel-Palestine. She adopts the concept of homeland to highlight how land and housing are central to both Zionism and Palestinian nationalism, and how the history of Zionist and Palestinian national housing have been inseparably intertwined from the introduction of the Ottoman Land Code in 1858 to the present day.

Following the Introduction, Part I, Historiographies of Land Reform and Nationalism, discusses the formation of nationalism as the direct result of the Ottoman land code of 1858. Part II, Housing as Proto-Nationalism focuses on housing as the means to claim rights over the homeland. Part III, Housing and Nation-Building in the Age of State Sovereignty, explores the effects of statehood on national housing across several strata of Israeli society. The Afterword discusses housing as the quintessential object of agonistic conflict in Israel-Palestine, around which the Israeli polity is formed and reformed.

The Islamic Republic: A Bastion of Stability in the Region?
Machlis E. The Islamic Republic: A Bastion of Stability in the Region?. Middle East Critique. 2016;25 (4) :341-363.Abstract

The Islamic republic provides an important model to assess the stability of hybrid regimes. This case demonstrates the durability of competitive authoritarianism if the system allows flexibility, adjustments and maneuvering between multiple forces, creating dynamism and even evolutionary change. Hybrid regimes are naturally vulnerable, but by combining the strengths of different types of authoritarianism, they can persist over years. Stabilization requires meticulous balancing between legitimization, cooption, coercion, informal networks and economic growth. While the Islamic Republic appears to be steady regardless of its particular president, Hassan Rouhani further is stabilizing the system due to his broad support-base, his leadership style, his economic policy and his national agenda. With a growing debate over the republican-revolutionary axis, Iranian nationalism buttresses state legitimacy but also may re-shape its theocratic essence. Rouhani probably will take small steps to provide limited freedoms, while maintaining equilibrium between the country’s diverse political forces.

The Male Body in Jewish Lithuanian Ultra-Orthodoxy
Englander Y. The Male Body in Jewish Lithuanian Ultra-Orthodoxy.; 2016.Abstract

How does the Ultra-Orthodox literature describe the male body? What does the body represent? What is the ideal male body?

This book is a philosophical-theological journey about the different images of the male body in the Ultra-Orthodox literature after the holocaust.  The choice in the body as the center of the research comes from the fact that the body is the axis by which this community tries to understand its meaning and its role in life.

In the first part of the book, the writer explains the “problem of the body” and the different ways the Ultra-Orthodox theology deals with it. These different and even contradictory voices can teach the reader about the shifting of ideas inside the Ultra-Orthodox thought in the last decades. The second part of the book focuses on the image of the ideal body and describes how the rabbis train their bodies to reach ultimate form. 

Memory Laws: An Escalation in Minority Exclusion or a Testimony to the Limits of State Power?
Gutman Y. Memory Laws: An Escalation in Minority Exclusion or a Testimony to the Limits of State Power?. Law and Society Review. 2016;50 (3) :575-607.Abstract

The article addresses the tension between nation-state memory and the law through “memory laws.” In contrast to laws that ban genocide denial or a positive perception of a violent past, I focus on laws that ban a negative perception of a violent past. As I will show, these laws were utilized for a non-democratic purpose in the last decade or more: They were proposed in order to limit public debate on the national past by banning oppositional or minority views, in contrast to the principles of free speech and deliberative democracy. Their legislation in such cases also stands in opposition to truth-telling efforts in the international arena. I compare two cases of memory legislation, in contemporary Russia and Israel, and evaluate their different impacts on democratic public debates in practice. A third case of “failed legislation” in France compliments the analysis by demonstrating not only the capacity but also the limitation of state power to silence or control public debate using the law. Although national laws often reflect majority culture and memory, I propose that memory laws in Russia, Israel, and France present an escalating degree of minority exclusion—from omission to active banning.

Old Historians, New Historians, No Historians
Israeli R. Old Historians, New Historians, No Historians.; 2016.Abstract

This polemical volume tackles the thorny and controversial issue of the vastly different narratives told (or manufactured) by the two parties of the conflict in the Middle East (the Arabs and Israel), focusing on 1948, where it all started. While all sides in this debate have vested interests, this author included, an attempt has been made here to reflect the factual truth on the events, although their interpretation will always remain controversial. Although the book argues principally with Benny Morris, the founder and leader of the so-called New Historians, it encompasses a wide array of controversial topics, like the evaluation of the 1948-49 War, the morality of the war (or the necessity to wage it as it was), and its main reverberations, such as the continuing conflict after seven decades, the aggravation of the Palestinian minority in Israel, and the essence of what history means. Israeli argues that the current debate between the so-called Old Historians and the New Historians--itself healthy if and when it is kept to the point and not allowed to degrade into personal libel and recriminations--is not really as unbridgeable as is often claimed. Both sides have erred at points and both sides have some important and complementary light to shed on the contentious events surrounding the birth of Israel.

French colonial Dakar: The morphogenesis of an African regional capital
Bigon L. French colonial Dakar: The morphogenesis of an African regional capital.; 2016.Abstract

This book deals with the planning culture and architectural endeavors that shaped the model space of French colonial Dakar, a prominent city in West Africa. As part of a burgeoning field of the study of the extra-European planning history of Europe, this book is one of the pioneers in attesting to the connection between the French colonial doctrines of assimilation and association and French colonial planning and architectural policies in sub-Saharan Africa, together with an analysis of the variety of indigenous, bottom-up, spatial responses.    

 

Israel and Its Arab Minority, 1948–2008: Dialogue, Protest, Violence
Hitman G. Israel and Its Arab Minority, 1948–2008: Dialogue, Protest, Violence.; 2016.Abstract

Using a balanced approach, this study provides a comprehensive picture of the Arab sector over six decades. It examines what, when, and why the Arab minority in Israel chooses to either negotiate with the government or turn to protest or violence in order to change the status quo. This book offers a unique framework for further scholarly writings and enables policy makers, in any given situation, to identify the best policy to implement towards national minorities in order to reduce the possibility of tensions, violence, and escalation. These policies should not just involve making decisions to decrease a minority’s grievances, but should also aim to understand what type of leadership is guiding the minority in order to lower the chance of clashes between the parties.

Pisces Out of Morocco and the Saga of the Clandestine Jewish Exodus
Israeli R. Pisces Out of Morocco and the Saga of the Clandestine Jewish Exodus.; 2016.Abstract

This is the saga of the underground Jewish emigration from Morocco, which sent hundreds of thousands of Moroccan Jews who had been persecuted under Islam for centuries, onto illegal ships.

The Jews faced stormy seas and an uncertain future in their valiant attempts to escape from the authorities forbidding their emigration, risking their lives for the dream of reaching the hopeful shores of nascent Israel.

In one of those attempts, the ship "Pisces" sank off the coast of Morocco, taking with it 45 souls, including entire families who were never to reach their destination.

Since this book is partly autobiographical, much of the story focuses on the author and his family. The rest is populated by the many brave and unidentified Jews who ventured into the unknown, taking enormous risks to secretly leave Morocco.

Popular Contention, Regime, and Transition: The Arab Revolts in Comparative Global Perspective
Alimi E, Sela A, Sznajder M ed. Popular Contention, Regime, and Transition: The Arab Revolts in Comparative Global Perspective.; 2016.Abstract

Why is it that in spite undeniable similarities and time coincidence among Middle Eastern and North African countries we observed so different trajectories and outcomes of popular contention? And, why is it that despite unquestionable differences between MENA and non-MENA revolts we observed striking similarities in the actual dynamics of popular contention? Moving beyond a sole focus on root-causes and structural conditions on the one hand, and avoiding a teleological-like normative assessment of the outcomes and consequences of cycles of popular contention on the other, to focusing on dynamics of contentious politics, the book offers a broad comparative framework that facilitates the identification of theoretically meaningful similarities and dissimilarities both across the MENA countries and between MENA and non-MENA countries. These similarities and dissimilarities stem from the intricate, contingent, and indeterminate interplay among popular contention, regime, and transition, an interplay that takes on a hyper-pace during revolutionary cycles. Equally attentive to both similarities and differences and based on an unprecedented diverse set of cases from across the globe as well as a variety of comparative designs, Popular contention, Regime, and Transition offers revealing answers to two complementing questions: What can cycles of contention in other parts of the world tell us about revolts in the Arab world? And, what can the cycles of contention in the Arab world tell us about contentious politics more generally?

Place Names in Africa: Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories
Bigon L. Place Names in Africa: Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories.; 2016.Abstract

This volume examines the discursive relations between indigenous, colonial and post-colonial legacies of place naming in Africa in terms of the production of urban space and place. It is conducted by tracing and analyzing place-naming processes, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa during colonial times (British, French, Belgian, Portuguese), with a considerable attention to both the pre-colonial and post-colonial situations.

By combining in-depth area studies research – some of the contributions are of ethnographic quality – with colonial history, planning history and geography, the authors intend to show that culture matters in research on place names. 

This volume goes beyond the recent understanding obtained in critical studies of nomenclature, normally based on lists of official names, that place naming reflects the power of political regimes, nationalism, and ideology.

Rewriting History in Manga: Stories for the Nation
Otmazin N, Suter R ed. Rewriting History in Manga: Stories for the Nation.; 2016.Abstract

Based on a workshop organized by the editors at the University of Sydney, this book looks at the way manga (comic publications) reproduces alternative visions of Japanese history and have the potential to shape national historical memory. Rather than focusing on highly formulaic symbols of collective memory on the national level such as museums, monuments, state rituals and ceremonies, or history textbooks, as the majority of historical literature has done, our book looks at the way in which the past is being integrated and insinuated into the surrounding through the everyday production and consumption of manga. The individual chapters showcase specific instances of re-imagining, rewriting, and consuming history in manga format, from the late nineteenth century to the present, to address wider questions related to nationalism, modernity, politics, gender equality, and economic and social transformations.

​​​​​​Representations of Israeli-Jewish—Israeli-Palestinian Memory and Historical Narratives of the 1948 War
Sela A, Kadish A. ​​​​​​Representations of Israeli-Jewish—Israeli-Palestinian Memory and Historical Narratives of the 1948 War.; 2016.Abstract

The Palestine War of 1948 remains a defining event in the contemporary history of the Middle East, especially for Israelis and the Palestinians. The last three decades witnessed a major surge in the production by both parties of historical research and memory of the 1948 War along with the shifting focus of the Arab-Israeli conflict from one between Israel and its Arab neighboring states to its original inter-communal Arab-Jewish dispute within historic Palestine. This edited volume comprises chapters contributed by scholars of various expertise and disciplines (history, literature, cinematgology; museology, urban geography, International Relations, and art), all related to Israeli and Palestinian memory and historical narratives of the 1948 war. The volume demonstrates the interrelation between history, memory and politics in general, and fills a gap in the literature on how Israelis and Palestinians have been reproducing the memory of 1948 war the implications of which keep nourishing the conflict and stumbling its solution.   

A Study on Anaphora in Arabic Language
Yingbo L. A Study on Anaphora in Arabic Language.; 2016.Abstract

Anaphora is an important approach for article connection and extension, playing an indispensable role in article construction, which also applies to Arabic. This thesis, taking “anaphora in Arabic” as its research target, discusses its functions contained in text and how it is constructed.

Firstly, the book describes anaphora used in Arabic, and divide it into four types including noun anaphora, deictic anaphora, pronominal anaphora and morpheme anaphora based on expression forms of anaphora, and holds the opinion that the essential difference identifying a specific anaphora shall relate to accessibility of the respective concept. Therefore in this thesis, accessibility of concepts contained in a text is utilized as an analysis tool for analysis and conclusion of textual characteristics while different forms of anaphora appear.

It is the main idea that anaphora owns functions of textual extension and textual cohesion in text construction in Arabic. The function of textual extension, from aspect of T-R structure, refers to promotion of textual development via continuing or changing the theme of the previous minor sentence; from aspect of information structure, it refers to promotion of plot evolution via matching and combination of different new/old information. The function of textual cohesion is mainly realized by three ways including reference cohesion, conjunction cohesion and relevance cohesion. Based on what is mentioned above, the book herein discusses functional characteristics and selection principles of different anaphora forms in a text.

In this thesis, the book also pays attention to psychological process of the expressers during textual construction, and regard anaphora as a selection process, which is not only under influence of textual factors but also restricted by rhetoric ones. Expressers, during utilization process of anaphora applied to the antecedents and based on certain pragmatic intention, will select or establish corresponding forms and realize preset pragmatic purpose and rhetorical effect by way of actual meaning of the anaphora.

Lastly, with utilization of comparative study, the book has summarized the features of noun anaphora, deictic anaphora and pronominal anaphora in Arabic and Chinese texts to analyze the reasons leading to non-correspondence of the same anaphora form contained in an original text and in its translated one during translation between Chinese and Arabic, the purpose and exploration of which are oriented to the practical Arabic teaching and translation process.

 

Under the Shadow of the Rising Sun – Japan and the Jews during the Holocaust Era
Medzini M. Under the Shadow of the Rising Sun – Japan and the Jews during the Holocaust Era.; 2016.Abstract

Although a member of the Axis Alliance, Japan's leaders informed Nazi Germany that its attitude towards the Jews was very different from that of the Nazi regime. Some 40,000 Jews found themselves under Japanese occupation in World War II, virtually all of them survived unlike their brethren in Europe. The book traces the evolution of Japan's policy towards the Jews since the start of the 20th century and explains why Japan ignored repeated German demands to be involved in the "final solution".

Why I left School: Voices of Palestinian Dropouts in East Jerusalem
Rabho LA. Why I left School: Voices of Palestinian Dropouts in East Jerusalem.; 2016.Abstract

According to data published in 2012, nearly 40% of Palestinian students in East Jerusalem do not complete 12 years of study. Comparatively, the dropout rate is a mere 3% amongst the overall Jewish population of Jerusalem. Dr. Laila Abed Rabho designed this study to examine the factors that lead to such high dropout rates from the schools in East Jerusalem and possible ways to contend with this phenomenon. In contrast to previous research, Dr. Abed Rabho gives voice to the dropouts themselves. This study includes extensive in-depth interviews that were conducted with 26 student dropouts from East Jerusalem, who agreed to disclose their varied, personal stories, under condition of anonymity. Interviews were conducted with principals, teachers, advisors and senior educators, to examine the causes and possible solutions to the dropout problem. Dr. Abed Rabho's findings show that the causes for student dropout can be divided into five categories: Personal reasons; family reasons; economic/socio cultural reasons; and reasons of political/security.

Jews and Arabs Encountering their Identities: Transformations in Dialogue
Kahanoff M. Jews and Arabs Encountering their Identities: Transformations in Dialogue. Lexington Books; 2016.Abstract

Controlled and intentional intergroup encounters have been a feature of Arab-Jewish relations in Israel for more than four decades. They have a long and well-documented track record and an almost equally-long literature critical of their goals, intentions, and success. The book describes the multidimensional process of intergroup dialogue between Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs, revealing the profound inner turmoil it creates beneath the surface and its powerful potential to transform mutually negating relations. Kahanoff takes us beyond the usual level of the intergroup encounter to examine the dynamics that take place between and within each group and then, most boldly, within the consciousness of individual participants. She argues for the unsettling and dangerous nature of dialogue as crafting a space where individuals encounter not only the image or narrative of the other but also the image or narrative of the self. The author argues that dialogue contains the potential to destabilize a person's sense of identity and that the seeming failure of overt dialogue may signal the beginning of a process of inner dialogue and transformation.

The Internationalization of ISIS: The Muslim State in Iraq and Syria
Israeli R. The Internationalization of ISIS: The Muslim State in Iraq and Syria.; 2016.Abstract

An Islamic terrorist movement, ISIS (also dubbed IS or ISIL), has taken advantage of the chaotic "Arab Spring” in Syria and Iraq to declare an Islamic Caliphate wherever it has been able to rise to power. This movement is continuously attempting to extend the territory of its rule. The Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and the Libyan post-Qaddafi desert country have sworn allegiance to the Caliphate and every town that is captured by the fighting forces of ISIS is forced to submit to strict Islamic law.

The Caliphate movement is constantly increasing its power and influence. It is not only sustained by the thousands of local recruits, but it is reinforced by many thousands of Muslim minority youth dwelling abroad. These youths are charmed by the "purity” of its ideals and goals, its brutal and coercive ways, and its defiance of the West.

The United States, some "moderate” Arab allies in the Gulf, and some other international players, including Russia, have launched attacks against the ISIS forces to prevent them from further destroying the ancient cultures of Mosul and Palmyra, dedicated by UNESCO as part of the world heritage. Beyond that there does not seem to be any force capable of arresting their advance or checking their universal appeal to Muslims around the world. Israeli’s pessimistic conclusion is that ISIS may be contending for power in the Middle East for many years to come, while threatening to become a center of terrorist activity against the West.
Israel Studies Publication: Representations of Israeli-Jewish - Israeli-Palestinian Memory and Historical Narratives of the 1948 War
Sela A, Kadish A. Israel Studies Publication: Representations of Israeli-Jewish - Israeli-Palestinian Memory and Historical Narratives of the 1948 War.; 2016.Abstract

This special issue consists of a collection of studies of Israeli representations, both Jewish and Palestinian, of memory and historical narratives of the 1948 War. The studies map and explain some Israeli-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian perspectives of the 1948 War as represented in literature, historical museums, art, visual media, and landscape, as well as in competing official and societal narratives. They are examined especially against the backdrop of the Oslo process, which had strongly brought into relief tensions within and between both sides of the national divide concerning identity and legitimacy, justice, and righteousness of "self” and "other”.

 

Years of Upheaval: Axial Changes in Islam Since 1989
Israeli R. Years of Upheaval: Axial Changes in Islam Since 1989.; 2016.Abstract

Years of Upheaval discusses "Axial periods" in history; years that witnessed such fundamental reversals in history as to make the world turn upside down and inaugurate a new era. Raphael Israeli sees the post 1989 period as such a period in Islam. 

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